Mastering Pump Vocabulary: A Handy Glossary
Below is a glossary of common pump terminology that can help users and professionals understand the language used in the pump industry.
Affinity Laws: Equations used to predict the impact of changes in speed, impeller diameter, and other factors on pump performance.
Axial Flow Pump: A pump design where the flow of fluid is along the axis of the pump shaft.
Back Pull-Out Design: A pump design that allows for the removal of the impeller and the bearing assembly without disturbing the pump casing or piping.
Bearings: Components that allow constrained relative motion between two or more parts, helping to reduce friction and wear.
Cavitation: The formation and collapse of vapor bubbles in a fluid, which can cause damage to pump components.
Centrifugal Pump: A pump that uses a spinning impeller to increase the velocity of a fluid.
Check Valve: A valve that allows fluid to flow in one direction only.
Discharge Head: The total resistance against which a pump must operate, including elevation difference, friction, and pressure requirements.
Double Suction Pump: A pump in which fluid is admitted to both sides of the impeller, helping to balance axial thrust.
Efficiency: The ratio of useful energy output to energy input, expressed as a percentage.
End Suction Pump: A pump design where the fluid enters the pump from one end of the impeller.
Flow Rate: The volume of fluid that passes a given point in a given period of time, typically expressed in gallons per minute (GPM) or cubic meters per hour (m³/h).
Friction Loss: The loss of pressure or head due to the flow of fluid through pipes and fittings.
Gland Packing: A traditional method of sealing a pump shaft, using braided rope-like material to prevent leakage.
Grundfos Pump: A specific brand of pump known for its quality and efficiency.
Head: The height above the pump impeller at which fluid can be delivered, measured in meters or feet.
Horizontal Pump: A pump design where the shaft is positioned horizontally.
Impeller: The rotating part of a centrifugal pump that imparts velocity to the pumped fluid.
Inlet: The point at which fluid enters a pump.
Jet Pump: A type of pump that uses a jet of steam or water to carry the fluid.
Kinetic Pump: A type of pump that adds energy to a fluid primarily in the form of velocity.
Lift: The vertical distance from the source of fluid to the pump.
Mechanical Seal: A device used to prevent leakage of fluid along the pump shaft.
Multistage Pump: A pump with more than one impeller, used for high head applications.
Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH): A measure of how much the pressure in the fluid at the pump inlet exceeds vapor pressure.
Open Impeller: An impeller with blades that are open on one side, used for pumping liquids with suspended solids.
Positive Displacement Pump: A pump that moves a fixed amount of fluid with each cycle.
Priming: The process of filling a pump and the intake lines with fluid to prepare it for operation.
Quadrant Pump: A type of rotary positive displacement pump.
Radial Flow Pump: A pump in which the flow of fluid is perpendicular to the pump shaft.
Reciprocating Pump: A type of positive displacement pump that uses a piston or diaphragm to move fluid.
Seal: A device used to prevent leakage of fluid.
Self-Priming Pump: A pump that can create a partial vacuum to draw fluid into the inlet without needing external priming.
Total Dynamic Head (TDH): The total equivalent height that a fluid is to be pumped, considering friction losses in the pipe.
Turbine Pump: A type of centrifugal pump used for pumping water from deep wells.
Upthrust: A condition where the impeller is forced upwards, potentially causing damage to the pump.
Vane Pump: A type of positive displacement pump with vanes mounted on a rotor that rotates inside a cavity.
Viscosity: A measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow.
Wet Pit Pump: A pump that operates while submerged in the fluid it is pumping. It also can be called a submersible pump.
Working Pressure: The pressure at which a pump operates under normal conditions.
Zero Head: A condition where the pump is not producing any head or flow.
This glossary provides a foundational understanding of pump terminology. It is important to note that some terms may have additional meanings or nuances depending on specific applications or industries.
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